Notechs Wisdom

November 7th, 2014

Here’s a lesson I took from our recent NoTechs (Non Technical Skills for pilots) course:

Golden Rules of Technical Skills
Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, Administrate

Golden Rules of Non Technical Skills

Communicate, communicate, communicate
Attitude is everything
Embrace Change is essential for improvement
The future is the way forward, use the past for it’s lessons, that’s all
Embrace Challenge: No system is free from fault, accept that there will be issues.

Here’s the day to day easy to remember decision making model:

FORDEC : Facts, Options, Risks/Benefits, Decision, Execute, Check.
Note: the good test of a Notechs system is how much you use it in everyday life, I personally love this one, and use it everywhere, try it!

And here’s a cool thing I found on a fellow pilot’s facebook.
Is equal to;
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
H+A+R+D+W+O+R+K ;
K+N+O+W+L+E+D+G+E ;
12+15+22+5 = 54%
L+U+C+K ;
12+21+3+11 = 47%
None of them makes 100%.
Then what makes 100% ???
Is it Money?
NO !!!
M+O+N+E+Y= 13+15+14+5+25=72%
NO !!!
L+E+A+D+E+R+S+H+I+P= 12+5+1+4+5+18+19+8+9+16=97%
Every problem has a solution, only if we perhaps change our “ATTITUDE”.
A+T+T+I+T+U+D+E ;
1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5 = 100%

Awesome. (anyone counting that?)

Cessna Training Manuals

Mixture Leaning

October 18th, 2014

Just doing some final editing for our Cessna 172 ibook release, and found this article again. I’d read it some time back, I think it sums up the concepts nicely.

If you haven’t got time to read it all, essentially what is says, is lean as much as you can, while maintaining both smooth running, and acceptable engine temperatures. Lycoming and continental both recommend never operating with the CHT over 400 degrees for sustained periods, he adds a margin to this and sets himself a limit of 375, which is what I also do when I can, I never lean if the temps are above this. (We operate in very high ambient temps, and some engines run hotter than others, one of our aircraft usually runs slightly over 400 in the climb if the OAT is over 40 degrees Celsius – full rich.)

The only part I disagree is with lean of peak, since Lycoming and Continental both prohibit it in their bulletins on leaning issued in the 1990s. Sure it’s cleaner and cooler, but it’s also it’s on the steep side of the power curve, where leaning further causes a sharp drop off in power.

I usually operate either at peak power, at peak EGT or slightly rich of these if I need the cooling in hot temperature, and again, I have to run it full rich, or level off (for climbs) if my CHTs climb above 375.

Aircraft Technical Books

May 11th, 2013

Just a quick note from the sponsors to let you know that our Cessna Training Manuals are available here:

With our reputable retail partner Aircraft Technical Books, at our standard pilot friendly prices,


Erebus AGAIN?!

January 14th, 2012

Article by Danielle Bruckert
Co-Author, Cessna Training Manual Series

- Was There Perhaps Something Else We Overlooked?’

On a recent visit to New Zealand, I was intrigued to find yet another book propounding the popular theory that the pilots did no wrong, and more widespread sympathy by the NZ public for the poor deceased crew, and the terrible injustice done by the tyranical airline in trying to blame them. This post is probably going to stir alot of snow over the resting place of the pilots, and I apologise to the victims families for doing that, but I feel it needs to be said.

I teach a course on Multi-crew Co-operation, that is teaching pilots how to maximise the effect of having two people in the cockpit, to ensure that the whole is strengthened by the sum of the parts. While researching material for our presentations, I came across the CVR transcripts for the Erebus accident.

I’ve always had a suspicion about what happened, and reading the conversations from the cockpit voice recorder, confirmed it. However I provide this article to let you decide for yourself, without bias.

A Brief Summary of Accident:

At 19.17h (27 November) Flight TE901 took off for a scenic flight from Auckland over Antarctica(McMurdo). Approaching Ross Island it appeared that the area which was approved by the operator for VMC descents below 16000ft was obscured by cloud. The crew decided to descend in a clear area to the (true) North of Ross Island in two descending orbits. The aircraft’s descent was continued to 1500ft on the flight planned track back toward Ross Island for its next turning point, Williams Field, McMurdo. The aircraft however, was actually flying 1,5Nm East of its flight-planned track. Shortly after reaching 1500ft the GPWS sounded. Go around power was applied but the aircraft struck the slope of Mt Erebus at 1465ft. The aircraft broke up and caught fire.

To sum up a debate that fills several books:

The PROBABLE CAUSE as submitted by the initial Commission of Inquiry read: “The decision of the captain to continue the flight at low level toward an area of poor surface and horizon definition when the crew was not certain of their position and the subsequent inability to detect the rising terrain which intercepted the aircraft’s flight path.” An investigation by the Royal Commission of Inquiry overruled this, stating “The dominant cause of the disaster was the act of the airline in changing the computer track of the aircraft without telling the air crew.”, adding contributing factors as the lack of any chart showing a printed route, and the effects of sector whiteout. the final waypoint had been changed from longitude 166deg 48.0′ E (the Williams Field NDB) to 164deg 48.9′ E by mistake, three years previously, routing 7 flights down the middle of McMurdo Sound.

What’s new?

Consider, first, the primary rule in Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) for a visual descent: The pilot of an aircraft inder IFR may request to descend in VMC, only if it is assured they can maintain VMC, and subject to maintaining their own terrain clearance.

Highlighting the phrases below from the CVR, ask your self, was this crew certain they could maintain VMC when they began the descent, and when they continued the descent?

CA = Captain, FO = First Officer, FE = Flight Engineer, gu = Guide, MC = McMurdo Centre

4:04 CA I think we’ll start down early here.
FO OK, I’ll see if I can get hold of VHF
12,18 MC We have a low overcast in the area at about 2000ft and right now we’re having some snow, but visibility is still about 40 miles and if you like I can give you an update on where the cloud areas are around the local area.
FO Yes 901, that would be handy. We’d like to descend and maintain flight level one six zero.
MC Kiwi 901, Mac Centre descend and maintain flight level one six zero.
MC 901, this is the forecaster again. It looks like the clear areas around McMurdo area are at approximately between 75 and 100 miles to the northwest of us but right now over McMurdo we have a pretty extensive low overcast. Over.
12,19 FO Roger, New Zealand 901, thanks.
FE That’ll be round about Cape Bird, wouldn’t it?
FO Right, right.
FE Got a low overcast over McMurdo.
CA Doesn’t sound very promising, does it?
MC Within range of 40 miles of McMurdo we have radar that will, if you desire, let you down to 1500ft on radar vectors. Over.
FO Roger, New Zealand 901, that’s acceptable.
12:20 CA That’s what we want to hear.

12,31 CA I’ll have to do an orbit here, I think.
CA Well actually it’s clear out here if we get down.
FE It’s not clear on the right-hand side here.
FO No.

CA If you can get HF contact tell him that we’d like further descent. We have contact with the ground and we could, if necessary, descend doing an orbit.
12,32 FO We’d like further descent and we could orbit in our present position which is approximately 43 miles north, descending in VMC.
MC Roger Kiwi New Zealand 901, VMC descent is approved and keep Mac Centre advised of your altitude.

FO Roger, New Zealand 901, we’re vacating one eight zero. We’ll advise level.
12,34 CA Captain again, ladies and gentlemen. We’re carrying out an orbit and circling our present position and we’ll be descending to an altitude below cloud so that we can proceed to McMurdo Sound.
FE There’s Wilson.
12,35 FO Transponder is now responding.
FE Still no good on that frequency though?
FO No.

FO Roger 901, you are now loud and clear also. We are presently descending through flight level one three zero, VMC, and the intention at the moment is to descend to one zero thousand.

12,36 FO We’ve lost him again.
FO I’ll go back to HF, Jim.
CA I’ve got to stay VMC here so I’ll be doing another orbit.
12,38 FO 901, we briefly had contact on one three four one. We’ve now lost contact. We’re maintaining 10000ft, presently 34 miles to the north of McMurdo.

CA Tell him we can make a visual descent on a grid of one eight zero and make a visual approach to McMurdo.

12,42 FO 901, still negative contact on VHF. We are VMC and we’d like to let down on a grid of one eight zero and proceed visually to McMurdo.
MC New Zealand 901, maintain VMC. Keep u advised of your altitude as you approach McMurdo..

CA We’re VMC around this way so I’m going to do another turn in.
CA Sorry, haven’t got time to talk, but …
gu Ah well, you can’t talk if you can’t see anything.
12,43 gu There you go. There’s some land ahead.
CA I’ll arm the nav again.
12,44 FO Roger, New Zealand 901, 50 miles north the base was one zero thousand. We are now at 6000 descending to 2000 and we’re VMC.
12,45 CA We had a message from the Wright Valley and they are clear over there.
gu Oh, good.
CA So if you can get us out over that way…?
gu No trouble.
gu Taylor on the right now.
gu This is Peter Mulgrew speaking again folks. I still can’t see very much at the moment. Keep you informed soon as I see something that gives me a clue as to where we are. We’re going down in altitude now and it won’t be long before we get quite a good
12,46 FE Where’s Erebus in relation to us a the moment.
gu Left, about 20 or 25 miles.
FO Yep,yep.
FE I’m just thinking of any high ground in the area, that’s all.
gu I think it’ll be left.
FE Yes, I reckon about here.
gu Yes … no, no, I don’t really know.
12,47 gu That’s the edge.
CA Yes, OK. Probably see further anyway.
FO It’s not too bad.
gu I reckon Bird’s through here and Ross Island there. Erebus should be there.
CA Actually, these conditions don’t look very good at all, do they?
gu No they don’t.

12,49 gu That look like the edge of Ross Island there.
FE I don’t like this.
CA Have you got anything from him?
CA We’re 26 miles north. We’ll have to climb out of this.

gu You can see Ross Island? Fine.
FO You’re clear to turn right. There’s no high ground of you do a one eighty.
CA No … negative.
GPWS Whoop, whoop. Pull up. Whoop whoop.
FE Five hundred feet.
GPWS Pull up.
FE Four hundred feet.
GPWS Whoop, whoop. Pull up. Whoop whoop. Pull up.
CA Go-around power please.
GPWS Whoop, whoop. Pull -.

Once the crew started manoeuvring to maintain VMC (visual meterological conditions), they took navigation by visual reference into their own hands.

Again, ICAO states a VMC descent may be initiated provided the crew are ASSURED of maintaining VMC.

So, were they?

The Sad Part is it Happens More Often Than We Think

November 3rd, 2011

Transcript of the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) 28 April 1993 – GP Express Airlines

PF Pilot Flying
PNF Pilot Not Flying (Check pilot)
* Unidentifiable word or words
# Expletive
? Unsure of origin
[] Editorial insertion

2345:21 PF That’s as official as we get tonight
2345:22 PNF That’s right
2345:51 PF Lazy eights in the ninety nine
2349:16 PF [It is] our desire to see the world turn upside down and then right itself again.
2349:31 PNF How would this be?
2349:33 PF By doing what we’re just doing but keepin’ going.
2349:36 PNF Have you done such a thing.
2349:37 PF No.
2349:39 PNF I’ve not either. I’ve never rolled an airplane.
2349:42 PF You never rolled any airplane?
2349:43 PNF Zero point zero.
2349:45 PF Well #, never rolled a ninety nine.
2349:51 PNF Done a four oh two?
2349:52 PF Nope. One fifty two’s, one seventy two’s. That’s when I knew it was time to get out of instructing. Those slugs, they don’t roll very well at all. We were doing aileron rolls where you just sit like this and just crank, and they come round kinda hard. The barrel roll’s a lot easier on, uh, they don’t have enough poop to barrel roll, one seventy two’s not too bad, just where you’s kinda nose down I guess we’ve got enough speed right now and you just kinda start coming in like this, pullin’ up.

2350:28 PF And keep positive G’s on it. Take it all the way around, unload.
2350:35 PF And then point straight for the ground.

While on a proficiency check flight both pilots attempted to perform a barrel roll (a prohibited aerobatics manoeuvre). The Beechcraft C99, registration N115GP, struck the ground shortly before completion of the roll.

Fear of the Review

October 4th, 2011

By Lillian LeBlanc

Nearly everyone who works has had a performance review. Usually conducted at least annually, the performance review is designed to provide a structured way for a leader to give formal feedback about an employee’s job performance. Many employees approach the performance review with fear, expecting to hear negative comments. In reality, though, most performance reviews are positive.
Some performance reviews are nothing more than pats on the back, with little if any time spent discussing areas for improvement. Managers who conduct these kinds of reviews do so merely to fulfill an obligation. The box is checked, but the opportunity for dialogue and development is lost.

Aviation has an equivalent to the job performance review. The biennial flight review, or BFR, requires the pilot to demonstrate his or her pilot proficiency and knowledge of important regulations. As the name implies, the BFR occurs every other year. It is conducted by a flight instructor of the pilot’s choosing. Some pilots seek an easy BFR with a familiar instructor, wanting to simply check the box and satisfy an FAA requirement. According to an article in the September 23 issue of ePilot, published by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, fear of the BFR is common among pilots.

See full article here:

Pilot’s Operating Handbook 101

August 31st, 2011

As Featured On EzineArticles

The term Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH), originated from the US General Aviation Manufacturer’s Association who introduced the ‘GAMA Specification No. 1′ format for the ‘Pilot’s Operating Handbook’ in 1975.

The ‘GAMA Specification No. 1′ format for the ‘Pilot’s Operating Handbook’ (POH) was adopted in 1991 by ICAO in their Document 9516: Guidance on the Preparation of a Pilot’s Operating Handbook for Light Aeroplanes, and is now required for all newly certified aircraft by ICAO member states. Most light aircraft listed initially registered in 1976 or later, have Pilot’s Operating Handbooks (POHs) in this format.

Read more here:
Article Source:

Cessna 210 Short Field Performance

August 16th, 2011

Ths following post is an exert from the Cessna 210 Training Manual (, by Oleg Roud and Danielle Bruckert

Short Field Takeoff

For the minimum takeoff distance to clear a 50ft obstacle, the recommended procedure for a short field take-off in the AFM specifies:
Wing flaps 10 degrees;
Apply maximum power against brakes, full throttle, 2850RPM;
Elevator should be slightly low, lift off early;
Maintain 75kts / 85mph until obstacles are cleared;
Retract flaps once obstacles are cleared, and after safe retraction speed of 80kts/90mph is reached.

Note there is no speed specified for lift off in the short field procedure. With a tail low attitude the aircraft will become airborne as it gains flying speed. This technique is recommended as the sooner the aircraft is airborne frictional drag is removed, however the aircraft needs to be accelerated over the high contributing induced drag at low speed before it will climb away. Another drag curve related affect of the C210 is that precise control is required for this acceleration phase, and very little or no climb performance will be obtained until this is achieved.

If the aircraft is loaded with an aft centre of gravity limit, or when taking off from an uneven runway, it may become airborne well before the recommended lift off speed. This is very dangerous situation as the aircraft will fail to overcome the induced drag, maintain a very slow speed (often well below gear retraction speed) and fail to climb. To overcome this, the aircraft needs to be accelerated in ‘ground effect’ until sufficient speed is regained to enable gear retraction and safe climb out. If insufficient clearway is available for acceleration this method will lead to an inadvertent impact with terrain, therefore it is very important to guard against early lift off.

Because of the complexity of the handling after takeoff at too low speed, werever sufficient runway is available, it is advisable to rather keep the aircraft on the ground longer for a clean lift off, which will significantly improve the climb handling, similar to the improved climb technique used in multi-engine aircraft.

The figures and procedure above, are those prescribed in the flight manual for the maximum performance takeoff at maximum weight. Any deviation from the recommended procedure should be expected to give a decrease in performance.

Soft Field Takeoff

Soft or rough field takeoffs are performed with 10 degrees wing flaps by lifting the aeroplane off the ground as soon as practical in a slightly tail-low attitude. If no obstacles are ahead, the aeroplane should be leveled off immediately to accelerate to Vy (best rate of climb) for best initial climb performance. If there are obstacles, the aircraft should be accelerated to Vx (best angle of climb) and this speed should be maintained until all obstacles are cleared.

Short Field Landing

For a short field operation the exact speed is specified in the flight manual for the weight and conditions applicable. Positive control of the approach speed and descent should be made to ensure accuracy of the touchdown point.

The landing should be positive, with a high nose attitude (on the main wheels) and as close as possible to the stall.

In early models there is only one speed specified for landing, at maximum weight. At lower weights the aircraft will tend to float in the flare, and it is advisable to be prepared for this. Err towards the lower side of the speed, and begin reducing the power and speed early during the flare for landing. However when at the correct weight, the correct speed must be maintained, see further below regarding low speed handling.

Low Speed Handling

The Cessna 210 contains a relatively sharp drag curve, often blamed on the laminar flow wing. This characteristic means it is much less forgiving than most Cessna single engine types in low speed operations.

When flown slightly below the reference speed the aircraft seems to ‘“drop out of the sky’ and can require drastic recovery methods, for example application of full power to regain profile. Conversely if flown slightly too fast, the aircraft is difficult to slow down, tends to ‘float’ during the flare, and runway overruns can await the improperly prepared pilot. Forcing the aircraft onto the ground in response to this situation is the worst thing a pilot can do. This often leads to bounces which lead to porpoising and has resulted in many an inadequately trained pilot being left with a collapsed nose wheel or worse.

To avoid landing problems from poor approach profiles, more care should be taken in maintaining speed and slope during the approach. Crossing the ‘barrier’ at the right height and speed is half the battle in carrying out a landing you can proudly ‘walk away from’. The second part requires a smooth transition into the landing attitude allowing the speed to bleed off whilst raising the nose until the main wheels touch down at the minimum speed (for the conditions) in a nose high attitude.
Gear Retraction at Low Speed

The sharp drag curve also requires special care on takeoff, particularly where maximum performance is concerned. Retraction of flap or gear at minimum speeds will cause significant increases in drag when the aircraft is suddenly moved to the steep “back-side” of the drag curve. This can mean a marginally performing aircraft is now not performing, and assuming you are already at full power, height must be sacrificed to regain the necessary speed for climbing. Similarly lifting off at a too low speed results in little or no climb performance.

ICAO Flight Plan Codes – Reference

August 11th, 2011

Post compiled by By Danielle Bruckert
Author Cessna Training Manuals

The following list provides a nice quick reference list of the codes for ICAO flight plans.


• Use capital letters.
• Adhere closely to the prescribed format.
• Report hours in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, or Zulu).
• Use the 24-hour clock (e.g., 1800Z, 0930Z, etc.).
• The block preceding item 3 is to be completed by air traffic facilities.
• Complete item 19 as indicated. It will facilitate help by search and rescue (SAR) services.
• Numbers should be preceded by a zero only where it is necessary for a place filler, eg N0100, M075
• Right align especially for numbers – ie if there is too many spaces leave the ones to the left blank


—Enter one of the following:

• Aircraft registration (e.g., N172B, A6-ABC, ZS-XYZ, V5-RSV, ZK-DAN).
• ICAO designator followed by the flight number if one has been assigned (e.g., KLM511, RSV007).
• Call sign assigned by military authorities.



I if IFR
V if VFR
Y if IFR first
Z if VFR first


S if scheduled air service
N if non-scheduled air transport operation
G if general aviation
M if military
X if other than any of the defined categories above.

ITEM 9: Aircraft number, type, and wake turbulence category/number

The number need only be entered if more than one aircraft, however if desired enter 01

Type of aircraft — Enter appropriate 4 digit ICAO designator (e.g., TB10, BE90, C152, etc. ) .

Note : If no designator has been assigned or if the designator is misleading (eg a modified engine or airframe) or for formation flights comprising more than one type aircraft, indicate \” Z Z Z Z\” and specify the aircraft type(s) in item 18 preceded by \”TYP / .\”


H — HEAVY, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 136,000kg or more;
M — MEDIUM, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than 136,000kg but more than 7000kg;
L — LIGHT, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 7000kg or less.


– Radio Communication, Navigation and Approach Aid Equipment

A (Not allocated)
B (Not allocated)
E (Not allocated)
G GNSS (Only applicable if certified for the type of flight rules applied)
I Inertial Navigation
J Data link (see Note 3)
M Omega
P (Not allocated)
Q (Not allocated)
R RNP type certification (see Note 5)
S Standard (equipped with V, F, O, L)
W* *When prescribed by ATS
Z Other equipment carried (See Note 2)

NOTE 1: Standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, ADF, VOR and ILS, unless another combination is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
NOTE 2: If the letter Z is used, specify in Item 18 the other equipment carried, preceded by COM/ and/or NAV/, as appropriate.
NOTE 3: If the letter J is used, specify in Item 18 the equipment carried, preceded by DAT/ followed by one or more letters as appropriate.
NOTE 4: Information on navigation capability is provided to ATC for clearance and routing purposes.
NOTE 5: Inclusion of R indicates that an aircraft meets the RNP type prescribed for the route segment(s), route(s) and/or area concerned.

– Surveillance Equipment

SSR equipment:

N Nil
A Transponder — Mode A (4 digits — 4096 codes)
C Transponder — Most C172s Mode A (4 digits — 4096 codes) and Mode C
X Transponder — Mode S without both aircraft identification and pressure-altitude transmission
P Transponder — Mode S, including pressure-altitude transmission, but no aircraft identification transmission
I Transponder — Mode S, including aircraft identification transmission, but no pressure-altitude transmission
S Transponder — DA42 and new C172 after FTP Mode S, including both pressure-altitude and aircraft identification transmission.

ADS Equipment:

D ADS capability

Item 13: Departure airport and departure time

Airport—Use the ICAO four-letter location identifier.
Note: If no identifier has been assigned,indicate \”ZZZZ\” and specify the airport name in item 18 preceded by \”DEP/.\”
Ti me—Estimated time of depart u re (ETD). Use the 24-hour clock reported in UTC.

Note : When ATC personnel receive a flight plan filed in flight, they will enter \”A F I L\” and specify the ICAO four-letter identifier of the facility’s location in item 18 preceded by \” D E P / .\” Time will be given as actual time of arrival (ATA ) or estimated time of arrival (ETA) over the first point of the route .


Cruising speed—State true airspeed (TAS). Choose appropriate term:

Kilometers per hour, shown as \”K\” followed by four numbers (e.g., K0830).
Knots, expressed as \”N\” followed by four numbers (e.g., N0250).
Mach number, using the nearest hundredths of unit preceded by \”M\” (e.g., M082).

Note: FAA air traffic facilities do not accept speeds in metric terms.

Cruising level—State planned cruising level. Choose appropriate term:

Flight level, expressed as \”F\” followed by three numbers (e.g., F085).
Altitude in hundreds of feet, expressed as \”A\” followed by three numbers (e.g., A045).
Standard metric level in tens of meters, expressed as \”S\” followed by four numbers (e.g., S1130).
Altitude in tens of meters, expressed as \”M\” followed by four numbers (e.g., M0840).

5. VFR (unspecified cruising level).

Note: FAA air traffic facilities do not accept cruising levels in metric terms.

Route—Include speed, flight level, or flight rule changes:

Along designated routes—Enter:

1. Route designator (or the letters \”DCT\” if departure airport is outside a designated route segment followed by the point of joining the first designated route).

2. Each point where speed, flight level, or flight rule changes are planned followed by the designator for the next route segment (even if the same as the previous one) or the letters \”DCT\” if the next segment will be outside a designated route.

Outside designated routes—Enter:

1. Be a ring and distance from a navigation aid for points normally not m o re than 30 minutes’ flying time or 200 nautical miles apart (or when required by ATC, define route expressed in degrees and/or minutes of longitude/latitude).

2. Each point where speed, flight level, or flight rule changes are planned. Speed or altitude change—enter the point/designator followed by a slash and new speed or altitude information (e.g., LN/N0250A045). Flight rule change—enter the point/designator followed by a space and the new flight rule (e.g., LN VFR, LN/N0250A045 IFR, etc.). Cruise climb—enter the letter \”C\” followed by a slash, then the point at which cruise climb is planned, followed by a slash and the speed to be maintained, followed by the two levels defining the layer occupied during cruise climb, or the level above which cruise is planned followed by the letters \”PLUS\” (e. g . , C/48N050W/N0250F120F180, C/48N050W/M082F290PLUS, etc. ) .

Item 16: Destination airport, alternate airport, and time enroute

Airport and alternate— Use the ICAO four-letter location identifier (limit alternate to two airports).
Note : If no identifier has been assigned, use \” Z Z Z Z\” and specify the airport name in item 18 preceded by \”DEST/.
Time—Estimated time enroute (ETE). Use the 24-hour clock reported in UTC .


EET/ Significant points or FIR boundary designators and accumulated estimated elapsed times to such points or FIR boundaries, when so prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, or by the appropriate ATS authority.
RIF/ The route details to the revised destination aerodrome, followed by the ICAO four-letter location indicator of the aerodrome. The revised route is subject to re-clearance in flight.
REG/ The registration markings of the aircraft, if different from the aircraft identification in Item 7.
SEL/ SELCAL Code, if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
OPR/ Name of the operator, if not obvious from the aircraft identification in Item 7.
STS/ Reason for special handling by ATS; e.g., hospital aircraft, one engine inoperative; e.g., STS/HOSP, STS/ONE ENG INOP.
TYP/ Type(s) of aircraft, preceded if necessary by number(s) of aircraft, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 9.
PER/ Aircraft performance data, if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
COM/ Significant data related to communication equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority; e.g., COM/UHF only.
DAT/ significant data related to data link capability, using one or more of the letters S, H, V and M; e.g., DAT/S for satellite data link; DAT/H for HF data link; DAT/V for VHF data link; DAT/M for SSR Mode S data link. For all a/c with /S at HIFA
NAV/ Significant data related to navigation equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority.
DEP/ Name of departure aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 13, or the ICAO four letter location indicator of the location of the ATS unit from which supplementary flight plan data can be obtained, if AFIL is inserted in Item 13.
DEST/ Name of destination aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16.
ALTN/ Name of destination alternate aerodrome(s), if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16.
RALT/ Name of en-route alternate aerodrome(s).
CODE/ Aircraft address (expressed in the form of an alphanumerical code of six hexadecimal characters) when required by the appropriate ATS authority.
RMK/ Any other plain language remarks when required by the appropriate ATS authority or deemed necessary. Note- this can be used if requiring training at intermediate points on FPL or to indicate a special type of flight, like an initial flight test


E /—Endurance— Fuel endurance in hours and minutes. Use the 24-hour clock reported in UTC.

P/—Persons on board—Total number of persons on board.

– Emergency and Survival Equipment

CROSS OUT U if UHF on frequency 243.0 MHz is not available.
CROSS OUT V if VHF on frequency 121.5 MHz is not available.
CROSS OUT E if emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is not available.

CROSS OUT all indicators if survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT P if polar survival equipment is not carried
CROSS OUT D if desert survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT M if maritime survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT J if jungle survival equipment is not carried.

CROSS OUT all indicators if life jackets are not carried.
CROSS OUT L if life jackets are not equipped with lights.
CROSS OUT F if life jackets are not equipped with fluorescein.
CROSS OUT U or V or both as in R/ above to indicate radio capability of jackets, if any.

CROSS OUT indicators D and C if no dinghies are carried, or
(NUMBER) INSERT number of dinghies carried; and
(CAPACITY) INSERT total capacity, in persons, of all dinghies carried; and
(COVER) CROSS OUT indicator C if dinghies are not covered; and
(COLOUR) INSERT colour of dinghies if carried.

A/ (AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS) INSERT colour of aircraft and significant markings.

N/ (REMARKS) CROSS OUT indicator N if no remarks, or INDICATE any other survival equipment carried and any other remarks regarding survival equipment.

C/ (PILOT) INSERT name of pilot-in-command. Adding a telephone number saves a lot of time !

Now someone tell me why they don\’t still print this stuff on the back!!!

May 24th, 2011

Here’s a nice article from pilot and plane about saving money when trying to pay for your own flying.

I must admit, one suggestion – buying a share in a trainer, is one that I would do if I was back in the training phase. To elaborate, there were a few shares available when I was flying, but I never looked at it seriously since I didn’t think I could raise the cash. If you’ve got a job which pays for flying lessons, you can most likely get a loan for a share in a plane, and even with the interest payments, the savings on flying rates will leave you on top, with an asset which is appreciating. Mind you, unexpected maintenance can always come back to bite you, which is another reason I never took the risk to date. But it’s top on my list of things to buy when I get back home.

The important thing is – if you want to fly, you will afford it, and just keep at it any way you can.


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